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    Privilege the former, seemingly in the expense of the latter. In overall health services analysis, there’s at the moment much interest in realist evaluation, that is certainly, the exploration via an OTT.S103130 in-depth case study of theT. Greenhalgh, J. Russell, R.E. Ashcroft, and W. Parsonsrelationship of context, mechanism, and outcome (Pawson and Tilley 1997). This approach holds that the focus of research really should be the “hard” (i.e., external and independent of our perceptions of it) social reality that types the context for human action. Studying how interventions play out within this social reality, realists clarify, aids elucidate the generative causality of social interventions: What [generally] functions, for whom, in what situations? (Pawson and Tilley 1997). In realist notation, mechanisms are “underlying entities, processes, or [social] structures which operate in distinct contexts to generate outcomes of interest” (Astbury and Leeuw 2010, 368). Though realist researchers usually disagree around the fine detail of your context-mechanism-outcome connection, they do share a preference for answering the basic question, “What is this a case of?” to which the certain question, “What is going on here?” is subordinate. In a perfect planet, Pawson and Tilley would recommend creating and testing theory across a sample of situations. In practice, however, multiple comparative circumstances are tough to buy Lonafarnib locate, and Pawson subsequently developed realist critique, a technique for searching retrospectively at single-case research and generalizing by abstraction to create theoretical insights (Pawson et al. 2005). In sum, whereas the experimental researcher seeks to generalize by means of enumeration (adding up examples in the distinct in large-n studies to generate predictive statements of basic relevance), each srep30277 Yin (analytic generalization from cross-case comparison) and Pawson and Tilley (realist evaluation) seek to generalize via theoretical abstraction (i.e., by reasoning from examples to make theoretical statements of general relevance). This leaves unanswered the query on which the credibility of our own big, national-level evaluation hangs: What is the philosophical (and practical) significance with the “sample of one” study, especially when the researchers refrain from claiming that they are describing a case of anything? In other words, how can we justify an epistemology that privileges the specific query, “What is going on right here?” over the common query, “What is this a case of?”A Wittgensteinian View on the Singular Case StudyLudwig Wittgenstein (1889?951), whose life and function had been elegantly summarized in Monk’s biography (1991), is maybe best generally known as theWhy National eHealth Applications Have to have Dead Philosophersphilosopher who changed his mind partway by means of a brilliant profession. Certainly, Wittgenstein’s alter of thoughts was so dramatic that philosophy books invariably fmicb.2016.01271 qualify descriptions of his operate with “early” or “later.” The young Wittgenstein, a prot?g?of Bertrand Russell, produced a e e formidable dissertation around the philosophy of logic, supplying (amongst other issues) a extensive theory in the logical structure of language. Soon afterward, in his home city of Vienna, Wittgenstein joined and strongly influenced the Vienna Circle of logical positivists. But just after a number of years spent out of academia, he returned as a ruthless critic, not merely of logical positivism, but also of analytic philosophy extra generally, and spared no invective for his own early work (however the rum.