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    The consequences on the internalization of such stereotypes by young females are well-documented, which includes inhibiting their performances on math tests and dampening their connected sense of self-worth and feelings of competency (Aronson et al. 1999; Correll 2001; Eccles 1994; Steele and Aronson 1995). This study builds on prior perform to examine how gender stereotypes may possibly permeate modern high school classrooms. Situated inside a theoretical framework that views gender as a social structure, it contributes towards the emerging literature on bias at the interactional level, exactly where gender differences are continually constructed and reconstructed (PF06650833 supplier Deutsch 2007; Risman 2004). Specifically, we examine no matter if stereotypes of females’ inferior math capability could shape teachers’ assessments in the students with whom they interact everyday, resulting inside the presence of conditional bias, or disparate perceptions of abilityRiegle-Crumb and HumphriesPagethat stay immediately after accounting for observable measures j.1467-9507.2007.00408.x of academic efficiency (Ferguson 2003).NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptOur study addresses the lack of national-level journal.pone.0073519 investigation on teacher bias by using data in the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS), a survey of a nationally representative cohort of high school students. Additional, it advances the literature on gender stereotypes by drawing on theories of intersectionality that articulate how gender and race/ethnicity are concurrent and intertwined domains of inequality (Andersen 2005; Browne and Misra 2003; Risman 2004). Specifically, we note that racial/ethnic minority students too as female students are probably to encounter negative status expectations in math classrooms as stereotypes of men’s superior math skills do not generally refer to all males, but rather towards the presumed advantage inherent to white males in particular. We thus view white males as the relevant group of comparison and explore how evidence of bias in teachers’ perceptions of students’ ability may well be greater for some groups (e.g., Black females) than for others. On top of that, this study furthers our knowledge of bias by drawing on interactional theories of gender that argue for an exploration on the circumstances or environments in which gender could be much less relevant or salient (Deutsch 2007; Ridgeway and Correll 2004). As an alternative to assume constancy within the biased assessments teachers kind, we take into consideration how the stratified system of math genomeA.00431-14 course-taking in higher school may possibly generate various contexts with implications for the activation of stereotypes. We use course-taking information and facts accessible in the higher school transcript component of ELS to examine the presence of teacher bias in low, typical, and advanced level math courses. In sum, this study will contribute new information regarding the existence of gender bias in contemporary settings, so that by far better understanding its occurrence, we can function more efficiently to combat it.BACKGROUNDGendered Interactions and Bias in Math Classrooms The framework of this study is rooted in theories of gender as a social structure that is definitely constructed and maintained across various levels or dimensions. Especially, recent operate by Risman (2004) articulates how gender operates at three distinctive levels: the degree of individuals (who internalize gender socialization processes), the interactional level, where males and ladies confront diverse cultural expectations, and.